Gideon Analytical provides a variety of techniques which allow us to be the most advanced failure analysis house with electrical components, printed circuit boards, materials, quality control, vendor inspection, and understanding component processes. We design, debug and review electrical schematics, in addition to matching the failure with a design, application, process, manufacturing, or environmental issue. We have over 35 years experience in this area.
Theory of Operation
An Auger Electron Spectroscope
Atomic core ionization of nuclides within the sample occurs as a result of interactions with the electron beam. As a result of this inner core ionization, the electron from a higher energy level (shell) within the ionized atom drops down in energy to fill the vacancy in a lower orbital. The quantized energy difference between the two levels is then given up via either X-ray photon emission or via the radiationless Auger process yielding the auger electron.
Analyte Sample Size Hydrogen 5 Hydrogen in Aluminum 10 special sample preparation Proximate 5 CHN, BTU, Macro 5 Oxygen, Nitrogen 2 Carbon, Sulfur 2 Free Carbon 1 CHN Micro 5 Sample Preparation extra Proximate - moisture, ash, and volatile matter.
Instruments used Leco 404 and 400
Theory of Operation
The C-SAM works by alternately producing and receiving pulses of ultrasonic energy from 10- 200 MHz. Ultrasound will not transmit through air and the energy produced by an acoustical lens is focused on the acoustical subsurface on planes using water as the medium.
The ultrasound interacts within the solid, and the echoes reflected can be analyzed for information about the sample. Each interface within the sample transmits some ultrasonic energy, and reflects some energy.
ESCA has two key advantages which make it important in yield, material, and failure analysis. The principle of ESCA utilizes a medium energy x-ray source (typically Mg Ka or Al Ka) to eject valence band electrons, or photoelectrons, from a sample. The process can also generates Auger electrons. Since the energy, or binding energy, of every valence band electron is different, very accurate spectro-analysis of these energy levels provides qualitative elemental and compound analysis.
Theory of Operation
The component atoms of polyatomic molecular groups are in constant dynamic state of motion with respect to each other. They are changing between the molecular ground state and quantum mechanically allowed excited states due to thermal excitation. This movement allows the spectroscopist to observe the twisting, bending, rotating and stretching motions of the atoms within a molecule occur at frequencies that are in the infra-red (IR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum (0.
GC analysis is a common confirmation test. GC analysis separates all of the components in a sample and provides spectral output. The sample is injected in the GC port. The GC vaporizes the sample, separates and analyzes the various components. Each component produces a spectral peak that is recorded on a paper (intensity vs retention time). The time elapsed between injection and elution is called the “retention time.
Graphite Furnace AA (GFAA)
This technique often allows for 1000-fold greater sensitivity than flame AA. Instead of utilizing a flame to atomize the sample, an electrical current is passed through a graphite tube which contains the analyte. The resonant wavelength of choice from the spectral lamp passes through the center of the graphite tube with the sample vapor. The atomized element absorbs the light energy over time.
Brightfield, Darkfield and Interference Contrast (Nomarski)
Brightfield illumination Brightfield illumination is the normal, most even illumination mode. A full cone of light is focused by the objective on the sample. The sample is uniformly illuminated. The picture observed is the result of differences in reflectivity created by material properties of the sample, transmission and reflection through surface films, and by the surface contour of the sample (see comparison above).
Under high vacuum (10-6 Torr), an electron beam varying in intensity up to 30 keV is rastered over the sample surface, creating secondary electrons. These are extracted from the sample and imaged to create a high resolution, high depth of field, secondary electron image at magnifications to 250k x. Interactions of the sample atoms with the primary electron beam also result in inner core ionization of the atoms with the subsequent emission of quantized X-ray photon.
Description of Technique
This technique uses a focused primary energetic cesium or oxygen dimer ion beam to erode atoms from a selected region a sample surface. As the energetic primary ion beam sputters the sample surface, secondary ions formed are extracted from the sample and analyzed in a double-focusing mass spectrometer system. The lateral distribution of the ions is maintained through the spectrometer so that the mass resolved image of the secondary ions can be projected onto several types of image detectors.
Thermal analysis is used to characterize materials by measuring physical and reactive properties as a function of temperature. Temperature range becomes one of the most important criteria when considering such applications as the transportation industry, 3rd rail where voltage spikes and current are high for short durations, and electronic equipment exposed to the elements. Matching the materials in electronic packaging, polymer potting, and encapsulation is important to ensure product integrity in these environments.
Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) uses a beam of high-energy electrons to project a magnified image of a sample onto a fluorescent screen. Its optical configuration resembles a 35-mm slide projector with the sample taking the place of the photographic slide. A TEM uses electrons instead of photons, and the sample removes energy from the beam due to electron scattering rather than light absorption. A TEM illuminates an entire sample and uses electromagnetic lenses to focus the transmitted electrons into a highly magnified image.
Description of Technique
X-ray diffraction (XRD) takes advantages of the coherent scattering of x-rays by polycrystalline materials to obtain a wide range of structural information. The x-rays are scattered by each set of lattice planes at a characteristic angle, and the scattered intensity is a function of the atoms which occupy those planes. The scattering from all the different sets of planes results in a pattern which is unique to a given compound.
Description of Technique X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) is a nondestructive method for the elemental analysis of solids and liquids using a x-ray beam. The sample is irradiated which causes the emission of fluorescent x-rays to emerge from the sample. The x-rays are collected and displayed in a spectrum with either an energy dispersive or wavelength dispersive detector. The elements in the sample are identified by the wavelengths (qualitative) of the emitted x-rays while the concentrations of the elements are determined by the intensity of those x-rays (quantitative).
Nordson Dage XD7600NT Diamond Radiography The Ultimate High Magnification X-ray Inspection System is used in the electronic industry because of the high magnification and resolution for small circuitry and electronic components. It is ideal for PCB internal trace line inspection, an inspection of hermetically sealed parts, internal EOS (electrical overstress failures, and inspection of burned PCB without disturbing the component and trace line location; it is non-destructive.