An integrated circuit (IC) is an electronic circuit on one small chip or die of semiconductor material, normally silicon. The circuit is very compact and can have several billion transistors and other electronic components on the silicon die. The trace line width of each conductor gets smaller with advancing technology.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several Avago HCPL-2202 Optocouplers for failure analysis. These optocouplers have a totem pole output stages and optical receiver input stages with built-in Schmitt triggers to provide logic-compatible waveforms. They feature low input current (1.6mA to 1.8mA), Mbd typical signal rate, and guaranteed performance from -40 to 85 degrees Celsius. Some of their applications include isolation of high-speed logic systems, microprocessor system interfaces, and ground loop elimination. Our goal was to determine why the Avago HCPL-2202 Octocouplers had been failing.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received 20 failed Cortina WJLXT971ALCA4e3 Ethernet ICs to analyze. Integrated Circuits (ICs) are a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or “chip”) of semiconductor material that is normally silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller, faster, and less expensive than those constructed of discrete electronic components. These Cortina WJLXT971ALCA4e3 ICs were suspected to be possibly mislabeled or have some kind of manufacturing defects.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received one TI TPS767D301 dual-output low-dropout voltage regulator with a ground to reset short The TI TPS767D301 offers a transient response, low dropout voltages, and dual outputs. It is designed primarily for DSP applications. It features extended temperature performance from 55 to 125 degrees Celsius, drop out voltage typically 350 mV at 1 A, and enhanced product-change notification. The goal was to determine why these TI TPS767D301 voltage regulators were failing, paying special attention to the ground to reset short.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received a TI TMS320F28335PGFA Digital Signal Processor for failure analysis. Digital Signal Processing applications include audio and speech processing,sonar,radar, and other sensor array processing,spectral density estimation,statistical signal processing,digital image processing, among many others. The TI TMS320F28335PGFA features high-performance static CMOS technology, a 32-bit CPU, 16 x 16 and 32 x 32 MAC operations, and Harvard bus architecture. It has up to 88 individually programmable, multiplexed GPIO pins with input filtering.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received two Sunon Maglev MC35101V2-000U-G99 12V fans which did not operate. Along with the nonoperational fans, two functional fans were also sent to us for comparison. The Sunon Maglev MC35101V2-000U-G99 12V fan is an axial DC fan, with a speed of 7500 RPM and airflow of 6.5 CFM. An axial fan is a type of fan that causes gas to flow through it in an axial direction, parallel to the shaft about which the blades rotate.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received a programmable logic device (PLD) P18586P for failure analysis. A programmable logic device is an electronic component used to build reconfigurable digital circuits. Unlike a logic gate, which has a fixed function, a PLD has an undefined function at the time of manufacture. Before the PLD can be used in a circuit it must be programmed. A PLD is a combination of a logic device and a memory device.
Gideon Analytical Analytical Laboratories received one On Semi MC14070BG CMOS SSI in a SOEIAJ-14 package, with the 15V supply line pulled down to 3.5V. The MC14070B quad exclusive OR gate and the MC14077B quad exclusive NOR gates are constructed with MOS P−channel and N−channel enhancement mode devices in a single monolithic structure. These complementary MOS logic gates find primary use where low power dissipation and/or high noise immunity is desired. The CMOS is a Complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor, which is a technology for constructing integrated circuits.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received one IXYSRF DE375-501N21A MOSFET for electronic failure analysis. A MOSFET is a type of field-effect transistor (FET). It has an insulated gate, whose voltage determines the conductivity of the device. This ability to change conductivity with the amount of applied voltage can be used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. The IXYSRF DE375-601N21A MOSFET has high dv/dt, nanosecond switching, and 50 MHz maximum frequency. The IXYSRF DE375-601N21A MOSFET sent to Gideon Analytical Laboratories had a g-s short.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received four Vishay SS26 Surface Mount Schottky Barrier Rectifiers for possible premature conditions to failure. A Schottky barrier is a potential energy barrier for electrons formed at a metal-semiconductor junction. Schottky barriers have rectifying characteristics, suitable for use as a diode. These Vishay SS26 Surface Mount Schottky Barrier Rectifiers feature a low profile package, high surge capability, and are RoHS compliant. The diodes came from PCB P/N 170310142001 Rev A03 S/N 051208-231.
Gideon AnalyticalLaboratories received four National LM5111-1M dual 5A compound gate drivers. Two were failed and two were operational. A gate driver is power amplifier that accepts a low-power input from a controller IC and produces a high-current drive input for the gate of a high-power transistor such as an IGBT or power MOSFET. Gate drivers can be provided either on-chip or as a discrete module. In essence, a gate driver consists of a level shifter in combination with an amplifier.
The Lambda KPSA10-15 is a self-contained, offline power supply capable of supply 15Volts DC at 1 Ampere from a universal input of 120VAC ~ 240VAC, 50/60Hz. It is designed for PCB mounting as a module and is passively cooled. Several of these power supplies failed in the field in 2-2.5 years. There was no sign of damage or environmental contamination on the PCB. All arrived DOA. The component selection was mediocre except for the electrolytic capacitors, which were chosen wisely.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received two Fairchild transient voltage suppressors (TVS) SMBJ5V0CA. Both diodes were identified as having failed.Transient Voltage Suppressors (TVS’s) are devices used to protect vulnerable circuits from electrical overstress such as that caused by electrostatic discharge, inductive load switching, and induced lightning. Within the TVS, damaging voltage spikes are limited by clamping or avalanche action of a rugged silicon pn junction which reduces the amplitude of the transient to a nondestructive level.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received two failed AUIRF7648M2 MOSFETs. These are rather new on the market and specifically designed for the automotive industry. Typically, when a MOSFET fails, all terminals short. It is the failure analyst’s job to discover how the MOSFET failed in the application by combining the schematics, clues found in the failure analysis, and clues found on the PCB to give a complete picture to help resolve the client’s problem.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received one 2N3700 transistor for failure analysis. A new 2N3700 transistor was also received for comparison. A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor’s terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories, Inc. received Atmel AT91SAM9260 based Embedded MPU; it is a 180 MHz ARM926EJ-S ARM Thumb Processor. The SAM9260 is based on the integration of an ARM926EJ-S processor with fast ROM and RAM memories and a wide range of peripherals. It embeds an Ethernet MAC, one USB Device Port, and a USB Host controller. It also integrates several standard peripherals, such as the USART, SPI, TWI, Timer Counters, Synchronous Serial Controller, ADC, and MultiMedia Card Interface.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several failed N-channel JFET 2N4856 parts. Several good N-channel JFET 2N4856 parts were also provided for comparison. A junction gate field-effect transistor (JFET) is a simple type of field-effect transistor. JFET source, respectively. The JFET 2N4856 were taken out of the application because of a waveform distortion at elevated temperature. The suggestion was to identify an electrical parameter (one or more) by which these unstable JFETs could be eliminated by a screen.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received a JanTXV1N821 Zener diode for electronic failure analysis. A diode is a two-terminal electronic component with asymmetric conductance; it has low (ideally zero) resistance to current in one direction and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other. A semiconductor diode is the most common type of diode; it is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p–n junction connected to two electrical terminals. A Zener diode is a diode which allows current to flow in the forward direction in the same manner as an ideal diode but also permits it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value, known as the breakdown voltage.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received four National LM5111-1m dual 5A compound gate drivers. There were two bad devices and two good ones for comparison. A gate driver is a power amplifier that accepts a low-power input from a controller IC and produces a high current drive input for the gate of a high-power transistor. They consist of a level shifter in combination with an amplifier. They can power IGBTs and MOSFETs. They can help control electronics that need higher power than the PWM signals can generate.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received two integrated circuits for failure analysis. Integrated circuits (ICs) are an assembly of electronic components, fabricated as a single unit, in which miniaturized active devices (like transistors and diodes) and passive devices (like capacitors and resistors) and their interconnections are built upon a thin substrate of semiconductor material. One was a Texas Instruments 5962-9861201QXA and the other was a Vishay 5962-9562301Q3A. The Texas Instruments 5962-9861201QXA was a DSP fixed-point 16-Bit 40MHz 20MIPS 132-Pin CFPAK.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received one failed Texas Instruments quad dual input 14-pin hermetic dual-in-line ceramic JM38510/05001BCA NAND gate for electrical component failure analysis. A NAND gate is a logic gate which produces an output that is false only if all its inputs are true; thus its output is a complement to that of the AND gate. A low (0) output results only if both the inputs to the gate are high (1); if one or both inputs are low (0), a high (1) output results.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received one linear microcircuit modular hybrid FK23009 for electronic failure analysis. A hybrid integrated circuit (HIC) is a miniaturized electronic circuit constructed of individual devices, such as semiconductors and passive components like resistors or inductors, and typically encapsulated in epoxy. The hybrid microcircuit is used in military and communications applications and is excellent for creating custom analog circuits, such as amplifiers and modulators. Thick film technology is often used as the interconnecting medium for hybrid integrated circuits.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received a failed Microsemi DZ771215A 10 watt diode for failure analysis. Two working devices were provided for comparison. A diode is an electric device that has two electrodes (anode and cathode) and that only allows current to flow in one direction, resisting current in the other direction. Diodes are used copiously as rectifiers, which convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) to change the amplitude of the signal in proportion to its voltage in the circuit.
“ Gideon Analytical Laboratories received four National Semiconductor LM5111-1M dual 5A compound gate drivers. A gate driver is a power amplifier that accepts low-power input from a controller integrated circuit and produces a high-current drive input for the gate of a high power transistor. These LM5111 Dual Gate drivers have high peak output current and efficiency. Each of the compound output driver stage includes MOS and bipolar transistors operating in parallel that together sink more than 5A peak from capacitive loads.
Gideon Analytical Labs received four Fairchild 74OL6000 field failed Optocouplers along with three good (virgin green dot) devices in which a comparison could be done. The LSTTL input compatibility is provided by an input integrated circuit, with industry standard logic levels. This input ampliﬁer IC switches a temperature compensated current source driving a high speed 850 nm AlGaAs LED emitter. This integration scheme eliminates CTR degradation over time and temperature. The emitter is optically coupled to an integrated photodetector/high-gain, high-speed output ampliﬁer IC.
Gideon Analytical Labs received two AD73311L CMOS general purpose analog front end processors. Each device had external thermal damage to the package and solder leads. The intent was to determine whether the failures were thermally or EOS induced. The AD73311L is a front-end processor for applications such as speech and telephony. It has a 16-bit A/D conversion channel and a 16-bit D/A conversion channel. Each channel provides 70 dB signal-to-noise ratio over the voice band signal bandwidth.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received two ICM7555 CMOS RC timers. Each device was pulling down the output.
The ICM7556 is a CMOS RC timer which provides stable a controller capable of producing accurate time delays or frequencies. The ICM7556 is a dual ICM7555, with the two timers operating independently of each other, sharing only V+ and GND. In the one-shot mode, the pulse width of each circuit is precisely controlled by one external resistor and capacitor.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received a Unity PLCC LED and was asked to perform FTIR analysis for the purpose of materials compatibility. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is a process used to acquire an infrared spectrum of absorption, emission, or photoconductivity of some substance. It can work with solids, liquids, or gasses, and can reveal the chemical composition of numerous materials. Gideon Analytical Laboratories was asked specifically to utilize FTIR on two substances: a white encapsulate and a clear/colorless material.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received eighteen digital signal processors (DSPs) for failure analysis. A DSP is a microprocessor architecturally designed to mathematically modify or improve a signal. DSPs are used in a variety of applications, including audio and speech signal processing or and sonar and radar signal processing. The goal in digital signal processing is to convert real-world analog signals into digital signals. Gideon Analytical Laboratories performed failure analysis on the DSPs.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received two semi-operational LM386 operational amplifiers for failure analysis. An operational amplifier (op-amp) is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and, usually, a single-ended output. Op-amps are linear devices that have all the properties required for DC amplification and are used in signal conditioning, filtering, or to perform a variety of mathematical operations. The op-amps received were reported to have quiescent current 2 to 3 times the normal value.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several dual N-channel SO-9 Vishay Siliconix MOSFETs. MOSFETs are transistors used for amplifying or switching electronic signals. The MOSFET is the most common transistor in both digital and analog circuits, used in many scenarios where voltage conversion is necessary. These dual N-channel SO-9 Vishay Siliconix Si4980DY MOSFETs were received for component evaluation and environmental testing in a variety of conditions to determine any noticeable flaws or anomalies with the package, die, or electrical parameters.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several VCSELs (vertical cavity surface emitting laser” with diminished light capacity over time for failure analysis. VCSELs are a type of semiconductor laser diode with laser beam emission perpendicular from the chip surface. The VCSEL has become of great importance in the optical communications field. Gideon Analytical Laboratories was tasked to diagnose the failing VCSELs.
Failure analysis commenced. The devices were tested on a curve tracer to determine whether any junction problems (junction inversion, leakage current, facet oxidation, etc.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several GVD30601-001 super hyperabrupt junction tuning varactor diodes with a latent failure mechanism over time. A varactor diode is a P-N junction diode that changes its capacitance and the series resistance as the bias applied to the diode is varied. Hyperabrupt tuning varactor diodes offer a large change in junction capacitance over a small tuning voltage range. Varactors are operated in a reverse-bias state, like a Zener diode.
Gideon Analytical Labs received four Maxim 4252EUA dual op-amps for failure analysis. Operational Amplifiers or Op-amps are one of the basic building blocks of analog electronic circuits. Operational amplifiers are linear devices that have all the properties required for nearly ideal DC amplification and are therefore used extensively in signal conditioning, filtering or to perform mathematical operations such as add, subtract, integration and differentiation. It was reported the fails indicated no output.
Gideon Analytical labs received one FDN337N-channel FET for failure analysis. The Drain-Source was reported shorted. Super SOTTM-3 N-Channel logic level enhancement mode power field effect transistors are produced using Fairchild’s high cell density DMOS technology. This very high-density process is specially tailored to minimize on-state resistance.
These devices are particularly suited for low voltage applications in notebook computers, portable phones, PCMCIA cards, and other battery powered circuits where fast switching and low in-line power loss are needed in a very small outline surface mount package.
Gideon Analytical Labs received two failed TI UCC27223PWP and three vintage devices for comparison. Two 14 pin Dip TI UCC27223PWP functional failures were sent from assemblies. The UCC27223 is a high-speed synchronous buck driver for thigh-efficiency lower-output voltage designs. Using PredictiveGate Drive (PGD) control technology, these drivers reduce diode conduction and reverse recovery losses in the synchronous rectifier MOSFET(s). The UCC27223 has an enable pin that controls the operation of both outputs.
Gideon Analytical Labs received one SCR (silicon-controlled rectifier) module FP25001P1 for failure analysis.
An SCR consists of four layers of alternating p- and n-type semiconductor materials, NPNP or PNPN structures. The three P-N junctions are labeled J1, J2 and, J3, for the three terminals. Silicon is used as the intrinsic semiconductor, to which the proper dopants are added. The junctions are either diffused or alloyed (an alloy is a mixed semiconductor or a mixed metal).
Gideon Analytical Labs received one failed 1N5626GP diode and several good ones for comparison. According to a Wikipedia post, a p–n junction diode is made of a crystal of a semiconductor, usually silicon, but germanium href=“https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gallium_arsenide">gallium arsenide are also used. Impurities are added to it to create a region on one side that contains negative charge carriers (electrons), called an n-type semiconductor, and a region on the other side that contains positive charge carriers (holes), called a p-type semiconductor.
Gideon Analytical Labs received one failed ST Microelectronics BTA06 Triac a TO-220AB package. The device was reported to have failed post-burn-in.
This Triac is suitable for general purpose AC switching according to ST Micro. They can be used as an ON/OFF function in applications such as static relays, heating regulation, induction motor starting circuits or for phase control operation in light dimmers, motor speed controllers. The specially recommended for use on inductive loads, thanks to their high commutation performances.
Gideon Analytical Labs received a failed IR FR22ON MOSFET within DC-DC converter. All the MOSFETs were shorted on all terminals. The MOSFETs were tested by lifting the gate and source wires from the circuitry. The Idss leakage for a good IR MOSFET is typically around less than 1 nano-amp. All the good MOSFETs tested were around .8 nano-amps, BVdss 220V, Vgsth 3.6, Igss <100nA. This IR FR220N has thermal damage. This typically overwhelms the junctions with current (heat) and the weakest hex cells are destroyed first.
Gideon Analytical Labs received several failed AS169 PHEMT DC 2676 transistors on several PCBs (pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor) is a field effect transistor incorporating a junction between two materials (GaAs and AlGaAs) with different valence and conduction bands (band gap is the difference between the two bands for the two materials) as opposed to a doped region where a MOSFET structure would be formed. The thickness of the one material is stretched such that the band gap opens more than it normally would which allows better performance because the lattice does not bunch up when the two materials are forced together.
Gideon Analytical Labs received Wamco Display Socket 4160001-1 for failure analysis. The device had a reported open diode on pin G.
This display socket is encapsulated in a plastic housing filled with a silicone rubber filler to stabilize movement of the diodes. The diodes are hermetically sealed in glass and position via plastic at one end and a socket located at the bifurcation line. The electrical data indicated the diode was open when initially measured but was intermittent when moved.
Gideon Analytical Labs received two BSP 77 HITFET devices with resistive shorts. The HITFET is a highly integrated temperature protected FET low-side switch which provides protection from short circuits, overloads, voltage surges, open circuits, excessive temperature, and ESD. These low-side switches are versatile power transistors specially designed for automotive and industrial applications. Their built-in intelligence and protective features offer improved performance and reliability over discrete components.
The die is covered with a polyimide over glassivation on top of the trace lines.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several shorted PX6A07 silicon rectifiers for failure analysis. Two good devices were provided for reference and comparison. A semiconductor diode is a crystalline piece of semiconductor material with a p-n junction connected to two electrical terminals. It conducts in the forward direction and is blocked in the reverse direction.
The good diodes were tested for conformance to the manufacturer’s specification. The good diodes performed per specification or exceeded electrical parameters listed.
This is a 6 amp plastic encapsulated silicon rectifier (PX6A07). Several of these high current diodes failed in the application.
The arrow points to the spot of one of the failures on one device after the epoxy and copper lead frame was removed.
The picture on the right is the anode. In the middle is the copper contact and the ring is actually the contact via solder to the P+ region of the die.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several intermittent diodes failures and two good ones for comparison.The failed devices were checked for intermittent operation. The three diodes open circuited between 65 and 80C. The lead frame makes contact with a solderable copper clad steel plug under the glass.
This picture shows the lead frame to plug interconnect. If solder fails to wet sufficiently the lead frame to plug interconnect, then intermittent opens can occur.