Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several RY4S-UAC110-120V power relays for failure analysis. A relay is an electrically operated switch. Many relays use an electromagnet to operate the switch, but other operating principles are also used, such as solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary to control a circuit by a separate low-power signal, or where several circuits must be controlled by one signal. Relays are used to control a high power or high voltage circuit with a low power circuit.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several T491D475K050AT Kemet tantalum capacitors for electronic failure analysis. A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electronic component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit. The Kemet T491D475K050AT has a capacitance of 4.7 uF, a voltage rating of 50 VDC, and a tolerance of 10%, measures 7.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received a TI TMS320F28335PGFA Digital Signal Processor for failure analysis. Digital Signal Processing applications include audio and speech processing,sonar,radar, and other sensor array processing,spectral density estimation,statistical signal processing,digital image processing, among many others. The TI TMS320F28335PGFA features high-performance static CMOS technology, a 32-bit CPU, 16 x 16 and 32 x 32 MAC operations, and Harvard bus architecture. It has up to 88 individually programmable, multiplexed GPIO pins with input filtering.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received three different vendor 100-ohm resistors, made by Vishay, RCD, and Stackpole, respectively. The two Stackpole resistors were open. A resistoris a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines, among other uses. Our goal was to test the functionality the Vishay, RCD, and Stackpole resistors, and if any were failing, determine the cause of the failure.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several Murata Electronics GCM21BR70J106KE22L Multi-Layered Ceramic Capacitors (MLCCs) for failure analysis. An MLCC consists of a number of individual capacitors stacked together in parallel and contacted via the terminal surfaces. The starting material for all MLCC chips is a mixture of finely ground granules of paraelectric or ferroelectric raw materials, modified by accurately determined additives. The Murata Electronics GCM21BR70J106KE22L has a capacitance of 10 uF, a DC voltage rating of 6.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received four Vishay CRCW2512220RJNEG thick film chip resistors to be analyzed. Thick film resistors are the most used resistors in electrical and electronic devices. The resistive material is a special paste with a mixture of a binder, a carrier, and the metal oxides to be deposited. These Vishay CRCW2512220RJNEG resistors thick film chip resistors feature stability at different environmental conditions and 2mm pitch packaging option for 0603 sizes.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received 22 EEPROM devices for analysis of the lead plating. EEPROM stands for electrically erasable programmable read-only memory and is a type of non-volatile memory used in computers and other electronic devices to store relatively small amounts of data but allowing individual bytes to be erased and reprogrammed. EEPROMs are organized as arrays of floating-gate transistors. EEPROMs can be programmed and erased in-circuit, by applying special programming signals.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received two metal castings. One was a cylinder and the other was an insert to the bottom of the cylinder. Metal means a process, in which liquid metal is poured into a mold, that contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowed to cool and solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received two power supply boards with components. The supplies were thought to have contamination, possibly bromine, causing corrosion or failing the electrolytic capacitor. The term electrolytic capacitor in a generic term for three different capacitors, which include aluminum electrolytic capacitors, tantalum electrolytic capacitors, and niobium electrolytic capacitors. All electrolytic capacitors are polarized capacitors whose anode is made of a particular metal on which an insulating oxide layer forms by anodization, acting as the dielectric of the electrolytic capacitor.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received two image sensors with high impedance on the connector between pins 4 and 5, measuring 10 KHz. An image sensor or imaging sensor is a sensor that detects and conveys the information that constitutes an image. It does so by converting the variable attenuation of light waves (as they pass through or reflect off objects) into signals, small bursts of current that convey the information. The waves can be light or other electromagnetic radiation.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received six United Chemi-Con KMG series 400V 22uF 6U capacitors for the specific purpose of determining whether or not they had the presence of chlorides.
The analysis was performed using SEM-EDS. The SEM-EDS system gave elemental analysis in relation to the intensity of the element at a specific wavelength or energy level (Kev). SEM-EDS is an analytical technique used for the elemental analysis or chemical characterization of a sample.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received a Printed Circuit Board (PCB) with contamination on several capacitor sleeves, connector pins, and an oscillator. An electrolytic capacitor is a capacitor whose anode (+) consists of pure aluminum foil with an etched surface, covered with a uniformly very thin barrier layer of insulating aluminum oxide, which operates as a dielectric. The electrolyte, which covers the rough surface of the oxide layer, operates as the second electrode, the cathode (-).
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received four Vishay SS26 Surface Mount Schottky Barrier Rectifiers for possible premature conditions to failure. A Schottky barrier is a potential energy barrier for electrons formed at a metal-semiconductor junction. Schottky barriers have rectifying characteristics, suitable for use as a diode. These Vishay SS26 Surface Mount Schottky Barrier Rectifiers feature a low profile package, high surge capability, and are RoHS compliant. The diodes came from PCB P/N 170310142001 Rev A03 S/N 051208-231.
Gideon received several Vishay SS26 Schottky rectifiers for failure analysis. It was thought something within the manufacturing process caused the devices to have a premature end of life in what would be considered a non-stressful application.
The Schottky diode is what is called a majority carrier device. It has advantages in terms of speed because it does not rely on holes or electrons recombining when they enter the opposite type of region as in the case of a conventional diode.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several screws to identify whether or not they were the source of carbon disulfide and sulfur dioxide, which were attacking some Buna-N O-rings. O-rings are a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a round cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface. The O-ring may be used in static applications or in dynamic applications where there is relative motion between the parts and the O-ring.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received a printed circuit board (PCB) with suspected failing multi-layered ceramic capacitors (MLCC). Multilayer ceramic capacitors are fixed value capacitors in which ceramic the material acting as the dielectric. It is made up of two or more alternating layers of ceramic and a metal layer acting as the electrodes. There are various types of materials that could function as the dielectric in a capacitor, for example, glass, porcelain, paper, or mica.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received two valves with failed printed circuit boards (PCBs) and corrosion inside the housing. The goal was to determine what the corrosion was and why the PCB failed. A printed circuit board mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive trace lines, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. The boards are made from glass reinforced plastic with copper tracks in the place of wires.
GideonAnalytical Laboratories received several Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) that were experiencing delamination of the solder masks, specifically on the EMI filter card. A PCB mechanically supports and electrically connects electronic components using conductive tracks, pads and other features etched from copper sheets laminated onto a non-conductive substrate. Components (e.g. capacitors, resistors or active devices) are generally soldered on the PCB. Advanced PCBs may contain components embedded in the substrate. Electromagnetic interference (EMI), also called radio-frequency interference (RFI) when in the radio frequency spectrum, is a disturbance generated by an external source that affects an electrical circuit by electromagnetic induction, electrostatic coupling, or conduction.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received two PCB assemblies upon which were several failing Vishay CRCW1210-HP-e3 surface mount (SM) resistors. Surface mount technology (SMT) is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards (PCBs). An electronic device so made is called a surface-mount device (SMD). In the industry, it has largely replaced the through-hole technology construction method of fitting components with wire leads into holes in the circuit board.
Gideon Analytical Laboratories received several lighting tracks for failure analysis. They all had what appeared to be arcing which caused severe copper pitting, melting of the Noryl, and distortion of the power bus bar. The neutral bus was also pitted but not nearly as bad as the power rail. Electrical arcing is an electrical breakdown of a gas that produces an ongoing electrical discharge. The current through a normally non-conductive medium such as air produces a plasma; the plasma may produce visible light.